Observations on the Expansion of Medical Categories.
Psychiatrists say ADHD arises as a developmental failure in the brain circuitry that underlies inhibition and self control. ADHD and its treatment have been controversial at least since the s. For reasons which are still not fully understood, drugs which act as central nervous system stimulants seem to have the reverse effect on many children with ADHD.
Conrad, Peter and Deborah Potter. Furthermore, in the absence of proper diagnosis and follow-up care, the drugs can do more harm than good. Stimulants do not produce improvement in all cases, and overmedication may actually make the problem worse or produce lethargy and lack of interest in learning.
The criteria for impulsive types is: In fact, the diagnosis of ADHD is usually made in response to school-related problems.
It is important to note, however, that stimulants are not a cure for ADHD; they merely help to control the symptoms. The executive functions are grouped into mental activities. Common symptoms of the disorder include difficulty staying focused, paying attention and controlling their behaviors.
When children grow up they absorb mental activities that are called executive functions, these functions help them divert distractions and remember things. White children tend to have higher rates of ADHD diagnosis than minority children. If a person can not inhibit interfering thoughts and impulses the executive functions will not be able to be carried out.
It was first defined as Hyperkinetic Disorder of Childhood in and was commonly known as hyperactivity or hyperactive syndrome until it was renamed ADHD in There are reports of adolescents seeking an ADHD diagnosis to gain learning disability status in order to Attention defecithyoeractivity disorder essay certain benefits, such as untimed tests or alternative assignments.
The most common medical treatment for ADHD is with psychoactive medications, especially ethyl-phenidate Ritalin and other stimulant medications Cylert, Adderall, and Concerta.
Secondary gain, accruing social benefits from a medical diagnosis, is also an issue with ADHD. An example is when children talk to themselves to try to remember something. Treatment rates have increased enormously in recent years; in the Department of Health and Human Services estimated 5 million children ages 5 to 17 were treated for ADHD inup from 2.
That is why children my have trouble paying attention. Others grant that some children may have a neurological disorder, but maintain that there has been an overdiagnosis of ADHD.
This disorder occurs more with boys than girls. Also, given the effectiveness of behaviorally based treatments in the absence of drugs, there are many who feel that prescribing amphetamines to children is inappropriate when alternative treatments exist without the side effects associated with amphetamine use.
In recent years the definition of ADHD has broadened. These images show that the brain areas that are reduced in size in children with ADHD are the ones that control attention. For each of the impulsive and the inattentive types, the DSM-IV lists nine symptoms, at least six of which must be present for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
ADHD often run in the family and children with the disorder are known to carry a gene with thin brain tissue and more specifically in the area where it is associated with attention.
The underlying problem in ADHD appears to be neurological, as evidenced by the remarkable success of psychoactive medication in treating the symptoms of the disorder. Some researchers have noted that many apparently successful adults seek an ADHD diagnosis and medication treatment as a result of learning about the disorder from professionals, the media, or others, and then seeing their own life problems reflected in the description of ADHD e.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Child psychiatrists see ADHD as the most common childhood psychiatric disorder and consider psychoactive medication treatment as well established and safe.
Is often forgetful in daily activities The criteria for inattentive types is: Its apparent effectiveness has led to very widespread use.
However, genes play a big role in causing the behaviors in combination with environmental factors, nutrition, brain injuries and social environment.
A combination of drugs and psychotherapy, preferably involving applied behavior analysis, is necessary to produce real, lasting improvement. Some have suggested that medicalizing deviant behavior as ADHD individualizes complex social problems and allows for powerful forms of medical social control medications to be used.
Brain injuries also contribute to the disorder. American Psychiatric Association, ; Krusch, D. These are environmental factors that affect small children and fixing the behavior can be hard because most of them grow with the habit over a long period of time.
The internalization of self directed speech is an activity that allows the individual to formulate problem solving and follow rules and instructions. The causes of ADHD are not well understood, although various theories have been offered, including dietary, genetic, psychological, and social ones.
This is common in places where children are subjected to traumatic experiences that cause traumatic brain injuries. Critics have expressed concern with the drugging of schoolchildren, contending that ADHD is merely a label for childhood deviant behavior.Free essay on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) available totally free at fresh-air-purifiers.com, the largest free essay community.
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