Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Electoral systems should be designed to give politicians real incentives to motivate, moving beyond a perhaps natural instinct to play the communal card to attain power.
Integrative power-sharing solutions have an inherent advantage, if they can be achieved. Critical to analysis of the problems is a coherent assessment of the role that ethnicity plays in the turn to violence and the prominence of identity as a cause of conflict.
In deciding which power-sharing institutions and practices might work, there is no substitute for intimate knowledge of any given country. Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management Cambridge: Cambridge University Press There is emerging evidence that such clever design can promote moderation in intractable conflicts, as examples from Northern Ireland, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea attest.
Whether in South Africa, Northern Ireland, Bosnia, or Lebanon, in the immediate term, formal power sharing has been an effective confidence-building device to ensure that all groups with the capacity to spoil a peace settlement should be included in the institutions and given influence in decision-making.
Conclusion Intractable conflicts are characterized in part by the inability of the parties in them to completely prevail by escalation. The inability to make or implement policy due to protracted disagreement can lead to frustration and eventually defection from a peace accord.
The Fiji experience points to how a well-conceived process, featuring a balanced panel of experts with firm political support, can arrive at creative solutions specifically tailored to a unique set of problems.
Power-sharing solutions make for good transitional devices, but in the long run the best outcome may well be a much more fluid form of democracy that allows for the creation of flexible coalitions that bridge the ethnic divide.
A practical way to begin is to purposefully manipulate the electoral system to provide new incentives to moderate and coalesce across group lines, as suggested above. There is no way to say prima facie which type of power-sharing system -- consociational or integrative -- is inherently best.
To reconcile immediate imperatives with the sustainability of peace over time, power sharing will work best when it can, over time, wither away.
Intra-group contestation and inter-group moderation in electoral contests The use of vote-pooling electoral systems, such as the Single Transferable Vote or the Alternative Vote People may be unwilling to vote for candidates who are not from their community Minority influence, not just representation Federalism is a way to give all minority groups access to power in various regions; the regions serve as a training ground for national-level moderates Political leaders and key public figures may not be willing to respond to the incentives for moderation, preferring that minority representation remain token or symbolic Although this typology presents two conceptually distinct approaches, it is clear power-sharing options can be pieced together in a number of ways.
In matching options to solutions, much depends on the level of enmity between the contending groups, the trajectory of the war e.
Cambridge University Press, If sustainable peace comes through " conflict transformation ," as argued by John Paul Lederachpower sharing is often too rigid a system to allow for the social and political changes necessary for addressing the underlying causes of conflict that give rise to war.
Historically, the outbreak of civil wars in Angola, Cyprus, Lebanon, Sierra Leone, and Sudan have all been the result of broken power-sharing agreements that led to renewed violence.The Political power in India is shared by three vertical units of governments- The Central government, the state government, and the local government.
Power Sharing and Inclusive Politics in Africa’s Uncertain Democracies A. Carl LeVan* Forthcoming in Power sharing is therefore taken here as merely one variety of political inclusion, Centering inclusion on representation recognizes the role of elections as well as other.
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Written by academic experts with 10 years. Write a detailed essay analysing the importance of power sharing in a democracy Also highlight the role of pressure groups in relation to the same.Download