Trials in the late roman republic

Fortunately all but one of the Latin cities—related to Rome by blood and tradition and specially favoured by Roman law—remained loyal: At the same time, Rutilius introduced arms drill and reformed the selection of senior officers.

The simplest and most common Script instructions. When the consuls of 77 would have nothing to do with this war, Pompey was entrusted by the Senate, through the efforts of his eminent friends and sponsors, with the task of assisting Metellus.

Since fields are marked in the input only at the beginning of the field and end when the next field begins, the XSLT 2.

Late Roman Republic: Wars & Expansion

To the disgust of his followers, Pompey evacuated Rome, then Italy. He was reelected consul year after year, while the German tribes delayed attacking Italy. Before long a face-saving compromise was found, and Marius returned; but in the 90s he played no major part.

Thus the limits of Roman power were gradually extended and the territories within them pacified, while men of noble stock rivaled the virtus of their ancestors and new men staked their own competing claims, winning glory essential to political advancement and sharing the booty with their officers and soldiers.

Trials in the late Roman Republic, 149 BC to 50 BC

Trials in the late roman republic in some trials, an advocate may be listed after, not before, the plaintiff; in some, a witness may be listed before the plaintiff. However, when the envoys incited Bithynian incursions into his territory, Mithradates launched a major offensive; he overran the two kingdoms and invaded Roman territory, where he attracted the sympathy of the natives by executing thousands of Italians and defeating and capturing the Roman commanders in the area.

Meanwhile a more serious challenge to the system had arisen in Iberia. His reforms aimed chiefly at stabilizing Senate authority by removing alternative centres of power.

Clodius, as tribune, had created a private army, and there was no state force to counter it.

But the consuls died, and Octavian demanded and, by armed force, obtained the consulship; and the armies of Italy, Spain, and Gaul soon showed that they would not fight against one another.

In Africa the Pompeian forces and their native allies were not defeated until Caesar himself moved against them and annihilated them at Thapsus.

He occupied the city and executed Sulpicius; Marius and others escaped. Starting inseveral Roman commanders Marcus Flaccus has been noted had fought against Ligurian and Gallic tribes in southern France and had finally established a Roman sphere of influence there: When Africa and Macedonia became provinciae to be regularly assigned to commanders, it was decided to break with precedent by not increasing the number of senior magistrates praetors.

It was at this point that Caesar returned from Spain. As for the overriding problem of poverty, his contribution to solving it was to settle tens of thousands of his veterans on land confiscated from enemies in Italy; having become landowners, the veterans would be ready to defend the social order, in which they now had a stake, against the dispossessed.

But as the saviour of his country and six times consul, he now hoped to become an elder statesman princepsaccepted and honoured by those who had once looked down on him as an upstart.

In trialthe person indexed as Staienus 1C. The current form of the editor for trials shows all of the existing data in the trial in read-only form, with buttons for editing an existing field or for adding a field not yet present.

The structure of mixed content tends to vary a great deal from element instance to element instance; XForms like relational database tables is easiest to use when structures are simple and regular.

Proceedings

The result was insecurity and danger for many leading Italians. In the ideal case, the processing instructions should not be needed and can be filtered out, but until it has been established that all the important information has been captured in XML elements and attributes, they should be kept around, in case they turn out to convey critical information, e.

The first year of the Social War 90 was dangerous: In a few cases, the index form does appear literally in the text, but is interrupted by a footnote.

In particular, advocates and witnesses who appear specifically for the defendant are grouped with the defendant; if the plaintiff also has an advocate, it will be listed after the plaintiff, not before. This chicken-and-egg problem is easily recognized as a computational form of the hermeneutic circle, and we solve it in an analogue of the time-honored way: Commanding all the Asian provinces, Pompey defeated Mithridates and established Roman rule over outlying provinces as far away as Armenia, Syria, and Judaea, part of the Parthian empire.

Two tribunes supporting him one of them Mark Antony had to flee. Like Pompey, senators denied his request for land to pay his men. In Rome, various men, including Marius, had hoped for the Eastern command.

We can search the relevant fields for occurrences of the character string in question and tag it as a person or a procedure.

The war was waged reluctantly and ineffectively, with the result that charges of bribery were freely bandied about by demagogic tribunes taking advantage of suspicion of aristocratic political behaviour that had smoldered ever since the Gracchan crisis.

In trialfor example, Titus Fadius is indexed as Fadius 9T. When the precise law appealed to is uncertain, the text often indicates it with a question mark; the index entry lex Cornelia de aleatoribusfor example, corresponds to the textual entry lex Cornelia?

But the Senate was unwilling to help, and Octavius was unwilling to negotiate over his veto—an action apparently unprecedented, though not strictly speaking unconstitutional.The Late Republic, circa BC BC, was the turning point in Rome's evolution from republic to empire.

In this volatile century, the Roman world expanded dramatically across the Mediterranean, Africa, the Near/Middle East, and western Europe.

Trials in the Late Roman Republic: BC to 50 BC is a tabulation, as exhaustive as possible, of the known legal facts pertaining to all trials and possible trials, criminal and civil, during the last century of the Roman republic for which some information has survived.

For Roman historians court records as we know them today do not exist.

Trials in the Late Roman Republic

To fill that gap Michael C. Alexander has tabulated, as exhaustively as possible, the scattered information available about the known trials, criminal and civil, dating from the last century of the Roman Republic ( BC to 50 BC).

This article aims at examining the role and influence of the audience (corona) in trials during the Late Roman Republic. Taking into account the practices of the orators and the reactions of the public and judges, the article argues that the corona. Add tags for "Trials in the late Roman Republic, BC to 50 BC".

Be the first. The Late Republic (–31 bc) The aftermath of the victories. The fall of Carthage and Corinth did not even mark a temporary end to warfare.

War and military glory were an essential part of the Roman aristocratic ethos and, hence, of Roman political life.

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